The vast racial gap in wealth is the
product of centuries of easily documented U.S. public policy, yet
willful denial of this history allows the debate over wealth disparities
to revolve around bogus questions of culture. In effect, the myriad
crimes of the U.S. government against Native Americans, Blacks,
Latinos and Asians – policies designed to transfer wealth to whites – are
to be forgiven, while the consequences of those crimes are laid
at the feet of the victims.
for a Fair Economy annually
documents existing disparities in wealth, most recently in its
of the Dream 2005. Meizhu Lui, a former president
of Boston’s AFSCME Local 1489, is executive director of United
for a Fair Economy. We are honored to present her thorough and
compelling article, first published by her group’s Racial
Wealth Divide Project. –
Race – constructed from a European vantage point – has
always been a basis on which U.S. society metes out access to wealth
and power. Both in times when the overall wealth gap has grown and
in times when a rising tide has managed to lift both rich and poor
boats, a pernicious wealth gap between whites and nonwhite minorities
Let's cut the cake by race. If you lined up all African-American families
by the amount of assets they owned minus their debts and then looked at the
family in the middle, that median family in 2001 had a net worth of $10,700
(excluding the value of automobiles). Line up all whites, and that median
family had a net worth of $106,400, almost 10 times more. Less than half
of African-American families own their own homes, while three out of four
white families do. Latinos are even less wealthy: the median Latino family
in 2001 had only $3,000 in assets, and less than half own their own homes.
We do not know how much Native Americans have in assets because so little
data has been collected, but their poverty rate is 26% compared to 8% for
whites, even though more than half own their own homes. Nor is much information
collected about Asian Americans. What we do know is that their poverty rate
is 13%, and that 60% of Asian Americans own their own homes, compared to
77% of whites.
Almost 40 years after the passage of the 20th century's major civil rights
legislation, huge wealth disparities persist. However, the myth that the
playing field was leveled by those laws is widespread. For anyone who
accepts the myth, it follows that if families of color are not on an economic
par with whites today, the problem must lie with them.
But the racial wealth gap has nothing to do with individual behaviors or
cultural deficits. Throughout U.S. history, deliberate government policies
transferred wealth from nonwhites to whites – essentially, affirmative action
for whites. The specific mechanisms of the transfer have varied, as have
the processes by which people have been put into racial categories in the
first place. But a brief review of American history, viewed through the lens
of wealth, reveals a consistent pattern of race-based obstacles that have
prevented Native Americans, African Americans, Latinos, and Asians from building
wealth at all comparable to whites.
In the U.S. Government We “Trust”?
When European settlers came to what would become the United States, Indian
tribes in general did not consider land to be a source of individual wealth.
It was a resource to be worshipped, treasured, and used to preserve all forms
of life. Unfortunately for them, that concept of common ownership and the
way of life they had built around it would clash mightily with the idea that
parcels of land should be owned by individuals and used to generate private
After the American Revolution, the official position of the new U.S. government
was that Indian tribes had the same status as foreign nations and that good
relations with them should be maintained. However, as European immigration
increased and westward expansion continued, the settlers increasingly coveted
Indian land. The federal government pressured Native Americans to sign one
treaty after another giving over land: In the United States' first century,
over 400 Indian treaties were signed. Indians were forcibly removed, first
from the south and then from the west, sometimes into reservations.
Eventually, the Indians' last large territory, the Great Plains, was essentially
handed over to whites. In one of the clearest instances of land expropriation,
the 1862 Homestead Act transferred a vast amount of land from Indian tribes
to white homesteaders by giving any white family 160 acres of land for free
if they would farm it for five years. Of course, this massive land transfer
was not accomplished without violence. General William Tecumseh Sherman,
of Civil War fame, wrote: "The more [Indians] we can kill this year,
the less will have to be killed the next year, for the more I see of these Indians, the more convinced I am that they all have to be killed or
be maintained as a species of paupers." (Ironically, the Homestead Act
is often cited as a model government program that supported asset-building.)
Out of the many treaties came the legal concept of the U.S. government's "trust
responsibility" for the Native nations, similar to the relationship
of a legal guardian to a child. In exchange for land, the government was
to provide for the needs of the Native peoples. Money from the sale of land
or natural resources was to be placed in a trust fund and managed in the
best interests of the Indian tribes. The government's mismanagement of Indian
assets was pervasive; yet, by law, Indian tribes could not fire the designated manager and hire a better or more honest one.
The Dawes Act of 1887 was designed to pressure Indians to assimilate into
white culture: to adopt a sedentary life style and end their tradition of
collective land ownership. The law broke up reservation land into individual
plots and forced Indians to attempt to farm "western" style; "surplus" land
was sold to whites. Under this scheme, millions more acres were transferred
from Native Americans to whites.
After 1953, the U.S. government terminated the trust status of the tribes.
While the stated purpose was to free Indians from government control, the
new policy exacted a price: the loss of tribally held land that was still
the basis of some tribes' existence. This blow reduced the remaining self
sufficient tribes to poverty and broke up tribal governments.
Thus, over a 200-year period, U.S. government policies transferred
Native Americans' wealth – primarily land and natural resources – into the
pockets of white individuals. This expropriation of vast tracts played
a foundational role in the creation of the U.S. economy. Only in recent years,
through the effective use of lawsuits to resurrect tribal rights assigned
under the old treaties, have some tribes succeeded in building substantial
pools of wealth, primarily from gaming businesses. This newfound casino wealth,
though, cannot make up for the decimation of Native peoples or the destruction
of traditional Native economies. Native Americans on average continue to
suffer disproportionate poverty.
African Americans: Slaves Don’t Own,
They Are Owned
From the earliest years of European settlement until the 1860s, African Americans
were assets to be tallied in the financial records of their owners. They
could be bought and sold, they created more wealth for their owners in the
form of children, they had no rights even over their own bodies, and they
worked without receiving any wages. Slaves and their labor became the basis
of wealth creation for plantation owners, people who owned and operated slave
ships, and companies that insured them. This was the most fundamental of
wealth divides in American history.
At the end of the Civil War, there was an opportunity to create a new starting
line. In the first few years, the Freedmen's Bureau and the occupying Union
army actually began to distribute land to newly freed slaves: the famous "40
acres and a mule," a modest enough way to begin. But the Freedmen's
Bureau was disbanded after only seven years, and the overwhelming majority
of land that freed slaves had been allotted was returned to its former white
owners. Unable to get a foothold as self-employed farmers, African Americans
were forced to accept sharecropping arrangements. While sharecroppers kept
some part of the fruits of their labor as in-kind income, the system kept
them perpetually in debt and unable to accumulate any assets.
In 1883, the Supreme Court overturned the Civil Rights Act of 1875, which
had given blacks the right to protect themselves and their property. By 1900,
the Southern states had passed laws that kept African Americans separate
and unequal, at the bottom of the economy. They began migrating to the North
and West in search of opportunity.
Amazingly, some African-American families did prosper as farmers and businesspeople
in the early 20th century. Some African-American communities thrived, even
establishing their own banks to build savings and investment within the community.
However, there was particular resentment against successful African Americans,
and they were often targets of the vigilante violence common in this period.
State and local governments helped vigilantes destroy their homes, run them
out of town, and lynch those "uppity" enough to resist, and the
federal government turned a blind eye. Sometimes entire black communities
were targeted. For example, the African- American business district in north
Tulsa, known as the "Black Wall Street" for its size and success,
was torched on the night of June 21, 1921 by white rioters, who destroyed
as many as 600 black-owned businesses. The Depression wiped out black progress,
which did not resume at all until the New Deal period. Even then, African
Americans were often barred from the new asset-building programs that benefited
whites. Under Social Security, workers paid into the system and were guaranteed
money in retirement.
However, domestic and agricultural work – two of the most significant black
occupations – were excluded from the program. Unemployment insurance and
the minimum wage didn't apply to domestic workers or farm workers either.
Other programs were also tilted toward white people. The Home Owners' Loan
Corporation was created in 1933 to help homeowners avoid foreclosure, but
not a single loan went to a black homeowner. Following World War II, a number
of new programs provided a ladder into the middle class – for whites. The
GI Bill of Rights and low-interest home mortgages provided tax-funded support
for higher education and for homeownership, two keys to family wealth building.
The GI Bill provided little benefit to black veterans, however, because a
recipient had to be accepted into a college – and many colleges did not accept
African-American students. Likewise, housing discrimination meant that homeownership
opportunities were greater for white families; subsidized mortgages were
often simply denied for home purchases in black neighborhoods.
Hidden Cost of Being African American, sociologist Thomas Shapiro
shows how, because of this history, even black families whose incomes are
equal to whites' generally have unequal economic standing. Whites are more
likely to have parents who benefited from the land grants of the Homestead
Act, who have Social Security or retirement benefits, or who own their own
homes. With their far greater average assets, whites can transfer advantage
from parents to children in the form of college tuition payments, down payments
on homes, or simply self-sufficient parents who do not need their children
to support them in old age. These are the invisible underpinnings of the
black-white wealth gap: wealth legally but inhumanely created from the unpaid
labor of blacks, the use of violence – often backed up by government power – to
stop black wealth-creating activities, tax-funded asset building programs
closed to blacks even as they, too, paid taxes. The playing field is not
level today. For example, recent studies demonstrate that blatant race discrimination
in hiring persists. But even if the playing field were level, the black/white
wealth gap would still be with us.
Latinos: In The United States’ Back Yard
At the time of the American Revolution, Spain, not England, was the
largest colonial landowner on the American continents. Unlike the English,
the Spanish intermarried widely with the indigenous populations. In
the 20th century, their descendents came to be identified as a distinct,
nonwhite group. (In the 1800's, Mexicans were generally considered
white.) Today, Latinos come from many countries with varied histories,
but the relationship of Mexicans to the United States is the longest,
and people of Mexican descent are still the largest Latino group in
the United States (67% in 2002). Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821. Three years later, the Monroe
Doctrine promised the newly independent nations of Latin America "protection" from
interference by European powers. However, this doctrine allowed the United
States itself to intervene in the affairs of the entire hemisphere. Ever
since, this paternalistic relationship (reminiscent of the "trust" relationship
with Native tribes) has meant U.S. political and economic dominance in Mexico
and Central and South America, causing the "push and pull" of the
people of those countries into and out of the United States.
Mexicans and Anglos fought together to free
Texas from Mexican rule, creating the Lone Star Republic of Texas,
which was then annexed to the United States in 1845. Three years
later, the United States went to war against Mexico to gain more
territory and continue fulfilling its "manifest destiny" – its
God-given right – to expand "from sea to shining sea." Mexico
lost the war and was forced to accept the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe
Hidalgo, which gave the United States half of Mexico's land. While
individual Mexican landowners were at first assured that they would
maintain ownership, the United States did not keep that promise,
and the treaty ushered in a huge transfer of land from Mexicans to
Anglos. For the first time in these areas, racial categories were
used to determine who could obtain land. The English language was
also used to establish Anglo dominance; legal papers in English proving
land ownership were required, and many Spanish speakers suffered
as a result.
In the twentieth century, government policy continued to reinforce a wealth
gap between Mexicans and whites. The first U.S.-Mexico border patrol was
set up in 1924, and deportations of Mexicans became commonplace. Like African
Americans, Latino workers were disproportionately represented in the occupations
not covered by the Social Security Act. During World War II, when U.S. farms
needed more agricultural workers, the federal government established the
Bracero program, under which Mexican workers were brought into the United
States to work for subminimum wages and few benefits, then kicked out when
their labor was no longer needed. Even today, Mexicans continue to be used
as "guest" – or really, reserve – workers to create profits for
The North American Free Trade Agreement, along with the proposed Central American Free Trade Agreement and Free Trade Agreement of the Americas, is
the newest incarnation of the Monroe Doctrine. Trade and immigration policies
are still being used to maintain U.S. control over the resources in its "back
yard," and at the same time to deny those it is "protecting" the
enjoyment of the benefits to be found in papa's "front yard."
Asian Americans: Perpetual Foreigners
first Asian immigrants, the Chinese, came to the United States at the same
time and for the same reason
as the Irish: to escape economic distress at home and take advantage
of economic opportunity in America. Like European immigrants, the
Chinese came voluntarily, paying their own passage, ready and willing
to seize the opportunity to build economic success in a new land.
Chinese and Irish immigrants arrived in large numbers in the same
decade, but their economic trajectories later diverged. The major
reason is race. While the Irish, caricatured as apes in early cartoons,
were soon able to become citizens, the Naturalization Act of 1790
limited eligibility for citizenship to "whites." Asians
did not know if they were white or not – but they wanted to be! The
rights and benefits of "whiteness" were obvious. Other
Americans didn't know whether or not they were white, either. Lawsuits
filed first by Chinese, then by Japanese, Indian (South Asian), and
Filipino immigrants all claimed that they should be granted "white" status.
The outcomes were confusing; for example, South Asians, classified
as Caucasian, were at first deemed white. Then, in later cases, courts
decided that while they were Caucasian, they were not white.
A series of laws limited the right of Asians to create wealth.
Chinese immigrants were drawn into the Gold Rush; the Foreign Miners
Tax, however, was designed
to push them out of the mining industry. The tax provided 25% of California's
annual state budget in the 1860s, but the government jobs and services the
tax underwrote went exclusively to whites – one of the first tax-based racial
transfers of wealth. And with the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Acts in
1882, the Chinese became the first nationality to be denied the right to
join this immigrant nation; the numbers of Chinese-American citizens thus
remained small until the 1960s.
The next wave of Asians came from Japan. Excellent farmers, the Japanese
bought land and created successful businesses. Resentment led to the passage
of the 1924 Alien Land Act, which prohibited noncitizens from owning land.
Japanese Americans then found other ways to create wealth, including nurseries
and the cut flower business. In 1941, they had $140 million of business wealth.
World War II would change all that. In 1942, the Roosevelt administration
forced Japanese Americans, foreign-born and citizen alike, to relocate to
internment camps in the inland Western states. They had a week to dispose
of their assets. Most had to sell their homes and businesses to whites at
fire sale prices – an enormous transfer of wealth. In 1988, a successful
suit for reparations gave the survivors of the camps $20,000 each, a mere
fraction of the wealth that was lost.
Today, Asians are the group that as a whole has moved closest to economic
parity with whites. (There are major variations in status between different
Asian nationalities, however, and grouping them masks serious problems facing
some groups.) While Asian immigrants have high poverty rates, American-born
Asians have moved into professional positions, and the median income of Asians
is now higher than that of whites. However, glass ceilings still persist,
and as Wen Ho Lee, the Chinese-American nuclear scientist who was falsely
accused of espionage in 2002, found out, Asians are still defined by race
and branded as perpetual foreigners.
The divergent histories of the Irish and the Chinese in the United
States illustrate the powerful role of race in the long-term accumulation
Irish-Americans faced plenty of discrimination in the labor market: consider
the "No Irish Need Apply" signs that were once common in Boston
storefronts. But they never faced legal prohibitions on asset ownership and
citizenship as Chinese immigrants did, or the expropriation of property as
the Japanese did. Today, people of Irish ancestry have attained widespread
material prosperity and access to political power, and some of the wealthiest
and most powerful men in business and politics are of Irish descent. Meantime,
the wealth and power of the Chinese are still marginal.
Throughout history, federal policies – from constructing racial categories,
to erecting barriers to asset building by nonwhites, to overseeing transfers
of wealth from nonwhites to whites – have created the basis for the current
racial wealth divide. If the gap is to be closed, government policies will
have to play an important role. It's long past time to close the gap.